Concealment, Denial, and Deception
Countries that want to hide their military or proliferation activities from the outside world often implement efforts to prevent access or observation through denial, concealment, or deceptive practices. In general, their intent is to reduce collection effectiveness by controlling what intelligence collectors (human or technical) can observe, manipulating information, or otherwise managing perceptions of foreign intelligence analysts and shape the decisions and actions of their policymakers.
—Denial refers specifically to activities and programs designed to eliminate, impair, degrade, or neutralize the effectiveness of human source, signals intercepts, imagery, and other types of collection efforts.
—Concealment refers to camouflage or to the management of activities in order to hide clandestine programs from detection and observation.
—Deception refers to the manipulation of intelligence collection, analysis, or public opinion by introducing false, misleading, or even true but tailored information into foreign intelligence channels. Again, the intent is to influence the judgments made by intelligence analysts as well as the perceptions and actions of their policymakers.