1. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., “The American Empire? Not So Fast,” World Policy Journal 22 (Spring 2004), available at http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/ articles/wpj05–sp/schlesinger.html (accessed March 9, 2006); Washington letter to Marquis de Lafayette, August 15, 1786, http://teachingamericanhistory.org/ library/index.asp?document=321 (accessed May 31, 2009).
2. Anders Stephanson, “A Most Interesting Empire,” in The New American Empire, ed. Lloyd C. Gardner and Marilyn Young (New York: New Press, 2005), 256.
3. Niall Ferguson, Colossus: The Price of America's Empire (New York: Penguin, 2004). Ferguson likewise quotes Bush's first secretary of state, Colin Powell: “We have never been imperialists” (7).
4. Highlighting the span of Williams's decades of influential scholarship are The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (New York: Delta Books, 1959), The Roots of the American Empire: A Study of the Growth and Shaping of a Social Consciousness in a Marketplace Society (New York: Random House, 1969); and Empire as a Way of Life: An Essay on the Causes and Character of America's Present Predicament Along with a Few Thoughts on an Alternative (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980); Lloyd C. Gardner, Walter LaFeber, and Thomas McCormick, The Creation of the American Empire: U.S. Diplomatic History (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1973).
5. Samuel Flagg Bemis, A Diplomatic History of the United States (New York: Holt, 1936), 468; transcript, “World Sees 'Imperialism' in America's Reach, Strength,” National Public Radio, All Things Considered, November 2, 2006, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6423000 (accessed November 3, 2006); David A. Lake, “Escape from the State of Nature: Authority and Hierarchy in World Politics,” International Security 32 (2007): 49.
6. Charles S. Maier, “An American Empire? The Problems of Frontiers and Peace in Twenty–first Century World Politics,” in Gardner and Young, The New American Empire, xi.
7. Robert W. Merry, Sands of Empire: Missionary Zeal, American Foreign Policy, and the Hazards of Global Ambition (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005), 218.
8. Niall Ferguson, “Empires with Expiration Dates,” Foreign Policy, September–October 2006, 50.
9. Andrew Bacevich, American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U.S. Diplomacy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002); Victoria De Grazia, Irresistible Empire: America's Advance through Twentieth–Century Europe