1. McCall, 1994, p. 44
2. McCall, 1994, pp. 44, 50.
3. Rodriguez, 1993, p. 121.
4. For exceptions, see Benson et al., 2003; Bourgois, 1996; Dugan and Apel, 2003; Dugan and Castro, 2006; Lauritsen and Schaum, 2004.
5. Britton, 2000; Daly and Chesney-Lind, 1988; Smart, 1976.
6. Felson's (2002) research has been particularly controversial in this regard. For critiques, see Kruttschnitt, 2002; Simpson, 2002.
7. Of course, it's impossible to provide an adequate list of citations for this substantial body of scholarship. Susan Brownmiller's (1975) Against Our Will is certainly a classic early work (though not without its critics). There is now an interdisciplinary journal, Violence against Women, on the issue, and numerous other key works, many of which can be found in my discussions throughout this book.
8. For an overview, see Renzetti et al., 2001.
9. For a systematic treatment of this issue, see Davis, 1981.
10. Collins, 1990; Davis, 1981; hooks, 1981; Spelman, 1989.
11. In fact, several factors have hindered research on violence against young women in urban African American communities. The most obvious is the ease of access in interviewing college students and adults, compared with the difficulties inherent in interviewing underage youths about sensitive topics (Schwartz, 1997). Two additional factors are noteworthy. First is the tendency to study inner-city youths primarily in terms of their perceived deviance—as delinquents, teen mothers, school dropouts (for discussions, see Chesney-Lind, 1993; Gibbs, 1990; Leadbeater and Way, 1996). Second, this is combined with widespread stereotypes about violence against women that define some victims as “innocent” and deserving of attention, while others are seen as more culpable for their victimization. White middle-class women assaulted by strangers are at one end of the continuum, while urban African American young women—especially those involved (or perceived to be involved) in other risk behaviors—are at the other (Estrich, 1987; Walsh, 1987). As a consequence, our knowledge of