I. As a result of the recount controversies, Florida reformed its election system, reworking and clarifying the calendar for the “protest” and “contest” phases for possible recounts, upgrading voting technology, and further defining standards for determining a valid vote and for proper election administration.
My shift from female to male pronouns is intentional here. Though a majority of voters today are female, women did not receive a national guarantee of suffrage until the passage of the Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution in 1919. The electorate in the 1870s and 1880s was restricted to males only. Later in the chapter I explain how the decline in turnout in the early twentieth century predated female suffrage.
An additional argument minimizing the problem of nonvoting holds that nonvoters have similar attitudes and candidate preferences to those of voters. Some evidence supports this proposition (Texeira 1992, 97-101), but it assumes that we can trust that nonvoters' survey responses represent stable political attitudes and candidate preferences. That is unlikely, given their very limited knowledge of politics (Zaller 1992; Doppelt and Shearer 1999). Even if we accept that assumption, there is no reason to suppose that the correlation of voter and nonvoter views will hold in future elections.
1. See Cook v. Grnlike (2001) 011 the limits of stare power over federal elections.