1. Data from the Louisiana Elections Division.
2. For a summary, see Schlozman, “Citizen Participation in America.”
3. Quotation and statistics from Konigsmark, “New Orleans' Upheaval.”
4. Komp, “Despite Barriers.”
5. “Nagin Re-elected.”
6. Quoted in Moreno, “Displaced Voters Make Wishes Known.”
7. Bartels, Unequal Democracy.
8. Scholars have a long history of looking empirically and theoretically at multiple models of representation. See, for example, Fairlie, “Nature of Political Representation,!”; Fairlie, “Nature of Political Representation, 11”; Dahl, Preface to Democratic Theory; Pitkin, Concept of Representation; Fiorina, Representatives, Roll Calls, and Constituencies; Weissberg, “Collective Versus Dyadic Representation”; Mansbridge, “Rethinking Representation”; Stimson, MacKuen, and Erikson, “Dynamic Representation”; Bartels, “Constituency Opinion”; and Warren Miller and Stokes, “Constituency Influence in Congress.” However, systematic studies of representation that identify which groups of people have more influence than others have just begun to emerge. Most studies aggregate individuals across congressional districts, states, or the nation. Much theoretical literature, however, has argued that legislators do differentiate their constituents based on how likely they are to vote and help the legislator get reelected. See, for instance, Fenno, Home Style; and Kingdon, Congressmen's Voting Decisions.
9. Studies about the effect of wealth on representation include Bartels, “Inequality and Popular Sovereignty”; and Gilens, “Public Opinion and Democratic Responsiveness.” Studies about the effect of partisanship on representation include Holian, Krebs, and Walsh, “Constituency Opinion”; Wright, “Policy Voting in the U.S. Senate”; and Shapiro et al., “Linking Constituency Opinion and Senate Voting Scores.”
10. Task Force on Inequality and American Democracy, American Democracy, 2.
11. Lohmann, “Signaling Model.”
12. Ainsworth and Sened, “Role of Lobbyists”; Austin-Smith, “Information and Influence”; Austin-Smith, “Campaign Contributions and Access.”
13. Schlozman, “Citizen Participation in America”; Brady, “Political Participation.”
14. Schlozman, “Citizen Participation in America.”
15. See, for example, Verba, Schlozman, and Brady, Voice and Equality; Rosenstone and Hansen, Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America; Wolfinger and Rosenstone, Who Votes?; and Verba and Nie, Participation in America.
16. See, for example, Schlozman, “Citizen Participation in America”; Verba, Schlozman, and Brady, Voice and Equality; and Rosenstone and Hansen, Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America.