Race in the American South: From Slavery to Civil Rights

By David Brown; Clive Webb | Go to book overview

INDEX
Page numbers in bold indicate maps
AAA see Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Abbot, Robert S., 237
Abernathy, Ralph, 303
abolitionist groups, 68
attacks on South, 103–4
creating siege mentality in South, 104
publishing ex-slaves stories, 123
use of John Wesley's ideas, 80
yeomen's views of, 109–10
see also anti-slavery movement
absentee owners, 48
Acadia, 91
accommodation as solution to racism, 209–18, 224–5, 342
activism, 342
of the 1950s and 1960s, 262–89
chronology of, 290
continuity of, 295–6
militant phase of, 296
see also boycotts against segregation; civil rights movement; integration of schools; sit-ins; voter registration
Adam and Eve, 71, 103
Adams-Onís Treaty (1819), 99
advertising and racism, 190–1
African Americans, 2, 8, 47, 55, 121, 161, 186, 251, 258
alleged depravity of, 190, 193, 213, 227, 228
and civil rights movement, 286, 294, 312, 313
in Civil War, 161–5, 164, 166–9, 169, 176; enlistment of, 149
education see education and African Americans
expected behaviour towards whites, 195–6, 222
impact of Great Depression and New Deal on, 241–51
and land ownership, 170–1, 181 see also sharecroppers and sharecropping; tenant farmers
migration to cities, 189
and New Deal, 244, 245, 247, 248, 249
not part of vision of American Revolution, 64
not receiving due process, 197
passing as whites, 223–4
religion and, 139–41
returning to Africa, 224, 225
self-improvement of, 213
and slavery, 24, 31; Maryland law making African Americans slaves, 27; serving for life as indentured servant, 24, 27, 31
voting and: gains in voting rights during Reconstruction, 173–4; losing voting rights, 184–8
see also Africans; blacks (as a race); slaves and slavery
'African cultural grammars', 141
African Methodist Episcopal church, 173, 225, 227
African Methodist Episcopal Zion church, 173, 227
Africans, 71
assimilation of, 21
charter generations of slaves, 18, 25–6, 36, 47, 49
child's status defined by mother's, 27
cultural practices of, 49–50; importance of, 51
ethnicity of, 19, 50
first Africans in Virginia, 12, 17–18, 23
freedom generation of slaves, 18
as inferiors, 21, 68, 70; justification for slavery, 75
migration generations of slaves, 18
not seen as slaves in early Virginia, 23–4
plantation generations of slaves, 18, 26, 35–62
return of to Africa, 82, 167
revolutionary generation of slaves, 18
'seasoned' slaves from Caribbean, 17, 26
seen as savage, 26
slaves direct from Africa, 36, 44
status of in early Virginia, 20–6
suited to work on rice plantations, 42–3
see also African Americans; blacks (as a race); slaves and slavery
Agassiz, Louis, 103
agrarian nature of South, 149
Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 243, 246
Air Corps, blacks and, 252
Air Force, blacks in, 253
Alabama
see also Deep South; Lower South as a state, 64
constitutional amendment
disfranchising African Americans, 187
convict-lease system in, 197
cotton as a major crop, 125
demographics for percentage of slaves in, 125
efforts to end segregation in, 291–5, 300, 305–7, 313–14
industrial economy of, 183
Native Americans in, 100
as part of the Black Belt, 99 see also Black Belt
and secession, 154
slavery in, 121
State Capitol Building, 314
state constitution upheld by Supreme Court, 219
statehood of, 99
States' Rights Democratic Party in, 267
tribal law no longer recognized, 99
universal white male suffrage, 105
violence in, 245–6, 264; lynchings, 245
Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights, 305
Alabama Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Company, 255
Alabama Sharecroppers Union, 246
Alabama State College, 292
Albany, Georgia, 303–5
Albany Movement, 303–5
Albemarle Sound, 39
Alexander, Will W., 240, 247
Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education, 324
Alexandria, Louisiana, 253
Algonquians (Native Americans), 13, 23
'All Coons Look Alike to Me' (song), 190
'all deliberate speed', 275
Almond, J. Lindsay, 268, 284
Alonzo v. Bailey, 197
amalgamation of races, 153
AME see African Methodist Episcopal church
American (Indian) race, 103
American Anti-Slavery Society, 104
American Civil War, 4, 68, 101, 339
African American participation in, 161–5, 166–9
beginning of, 155
comparison of Union and Confederacy's resources, 156
development of alternative black memory of, 226
economic and human costs, 169
as first modern war, 149, 156
lead up to, 150–5
map of, 148
secession, 149; conditional Unionists, 154; 'cooperationists', 154; legality of, 155; planters' efforts toward, 152–3; secession conventions, 154; 'ultimationists', 154
surrender at Appomattox Court House, 161
see also Confederacy; Union
American Colonization Society, 82
American Dilemma, An (Myrdal), 258, 263
American Revolution
black soldiers, 65, 78
fears of slave rebellion, 65
promoting concept of white superiority, 94–5
in the South, 64–7
American School of Ethnology, 102, 103
Ames, Jesse Daniel, 241
AME Zion see African Methodist Episcopal Zion church

-375-

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