Body Panic: Gender, Health, and the Selling of Fitness

By Shari L. Dworkin; Faye Linda Wachs | Go to book overview

Notes

NOTES TO CHAPTER 1

1. See Brownell and Napolitano (1995) and unpublished work by Wayne Phillips at Stanford University.

2. See Gillett and White (1992). At the same time, this may indicate that those men who were previously left out of dominant bodily ideals began to carry signifiers of them (e.g., gay men).

3. Please see Cahn (1994). Anne Bolin (1996) puts forward that the sex-gender-sexuality triad in Western cultures is another explanation for why women and men are being constituted as distinct creatures.

4. Please see Whitson (1990); Burstyn (1999). Works on homophobia rely on this too, such as Blinde and Taub (1992); Blinde and Taub (1992a); Griffin (1998).

5. There is some contestation to these beliefs of course, as evidenced by the increasing overlap between heterosexual, bi-, and gay men's signifiers (e.g., the metrosexual), and increasing overlap in the signs and symbolism of femininity/ masculinity across heterosexual, bi-, and lesbian women. For example, see Griggers (1994).

6. Fiske (1994); Heywood and Dworkin (2003); Griggers (1994); Halberstam (1998). Still, researchers find the trend of assumptions of lesbianism when women play male-dominated sports. See Harris (2005).

7. Even children are said to be subject to sexualization and objectification. See American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls (2007a).

8. It is important to note that some work reports that while both women and men have distorted views of their body, white women have the most distorted view of their own body. African-American women appear to have the most accurate perception. Please see Demarest and Alien (2000).

9. Tensions in the literature range from fitness ideals not speaking to the majority of working-class women or women of color to fitness messages being increasingly internalized across all social locations. For the former, see Hargreaves (1994). For the latter, see Bordo (1993).

10. Bartky (1988). Others note the seemingly private nature of this struggle that is internalized as moral failure instead of leading to cultural critique. While

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