1. See Stuart Elliott, “Tired of Being a Villain, Philip Morris Works on Its Image,” New York Times, 11 November 1999 (online; available: http://www.nytimes.com; 6 July 2001).
2. After a decade of debate (1989–1999) on the Holocaust Memorial, Peter Eisenman's proposal for a Forest of Pillars, along with a small House of Information, was approved by the German parliament. Although I do not address the role of the Holocaust Memorial explicitly, it was a key part of the discourses surrounding German identity during the 1990s. See also the debate in the parliament on artist Hans Haacke's installation in a courtyard of the Reichstag, DER BEVöLKERUNG (To the Population), referencing the inscription over the main entrance, which reads “DEM DEUTSCHEN VOLKE” (To the German people). Roger Cohen, “Poking Fun, Artfully, at a Heady German Word,” New York Times, 31 March 2000.
3. Listings in the Europäische Sponsoring-Börse (ESB, European Sponsoring Exchange) (online; available: http://www.esb-online.com; 6 July, 2001) provide ample evidence that many aspects of cultural and social life in Germany (e.g., education in the new states) are increasingly supported through corporate donations.
4. Judith H. Dobrzynski, “Ford Devotes $40 Million More to Art,” New York Times, 3 May 2000 (online; available: http://www.nytimes.com; 3 May 2000).
5. For example, Paul G. Allen, cofounder of Microsoft, established six charitable foundations, including the Allen Foundation for the Arts and the Experience Music Project Foundation, which funded the Experience Music Project building in Seattle, designed by Frank Gehry. See Paul G. Allen Foundation Web site: http://www.paulallen.com/foundations/ main.asp (6 July 2001).
6. “Intel Chips In for Whitney Show,” Art in America, November 1998, 52. See also the Intel Corporation Web site: http://www.intel.com/pressroom/archive/releases/CO092498. HTM; 9 September 2001. Corporate expenditures for all event sponsorships (including sports) had already exceeded $3 billion by the mid-1990s (Schreiber 1994, 1).
7. “NEA Gives Final Grants for 2000,” Art in America, July 2000, 128. Congressional reorganization of the NEA in 1996 required that individual artists apply for grants through their local arts organizations, thereby creating greater administrative control and bureaucratization (Siegel 1996, 168).
8. Cultural institutions face a number of issues regarding partnerships with social organizations, issues ranging from appropriate selection criteria for partners to the types of programs that should be offered to administrative costs. Indeed, most larger cultural institutions (museums, symphonies) already maintain programs for community education and outreach. Will