1 See an analysis of Dewey's idea of communication in Carl Bybee, Can Democracy Survive in the Post-Factual Age?: A Return to the LippmannDewey Debate about the Politics of News, 1 Journalism and Mass Communication Monograph 1, 27–56 (1999). Bybee analyzed the ideas of both Lippmann and Dewey about democratic theory. He said both theorists agreed on the importance of communication. “For the public to act as a public requires open and free communication in order to inform itself of the current state of affairs and to debate the consequences of individual and associated behavior in order to judge their value in terms of the shared interests of the public” (at 55). Bybee added that Lippmann believed this role of communication no longer possible in the democracy because of the size and complexity of government and the basic irrationality of human action. But Dewey believed in the enduring relevance of the role communication is expected to play in the liberal theory of democracy.
2 Rodney A. Smolla, Free Speech in an Open Society 3 (Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1992).
3 For example, the United States' Constitution guarantees the right of freedom of speech in the First Amendment. In Britain, freedom of speech has nonconstitutional status as a legal principle, but it is an accepted political principle that affects the interpretation of statutes and the development of judicial doctrines.
4 Amy Gutmann, How Liberal Is Democracy? in Douglas MacLean and Claudia Hills, eds, Liberalism Reconsidered 25–50 (Rowman & Allanheld 1983).
5 Kent Greenawalt, Speech, Crime, and the Uses of Language 4 (Oxford University Press, 1989).
6 Julianne Schultz, Reviving the Fourth Estate: Democracy, Accountability and the Media 70 (Cambridge University Press, 1998), said:
In the United States, where rights to freedom of the press and
expression and individual rights are explicitly stated… the news
media has used its constitutional authority to add force to the
argument that it should operate unfettered. In countries such as
Australia and Britain, where there is no constitutional
acknowledgment of the right to freedom of speech and the press, the