The musical examples are of two types: (I) quotations of actual music, and (2) schematic 'diagrams' of progressions, etc.
Where these have been transposed, the interval is given at the end of the caption, e. g. 'up a tone' means that the example is a tone higher than the original. In addition, note the following:
1. Dates are provided for most quotations. I must disclaim any deep research for these, most of which have simply been drawn from the handiest source; in any case, it is often impossible to ascertain the exact year of composition. When a period covers more than one year (e.g. 1856–8), this usually means that the work was composed at some time during that period, rather than that it occupied the whole of it. In dubious cases I have preferred later dates, on the grounds that the work must at least have been in existence by then.
2. Bar numbers are included in most headings, e.g. 'Schoenberg, Verklärte Nacht, bars 231–5'. These are not to be confused with the numbers printed below most of the staves. It is the latter that are referred to in the text, e.g. 'in bars 3–5 of Ex.…'.
3. Repeat marks with four instead of two dots indicate indefinite repetition.
4. A few liberties have been taken with the rhythmic notation, especially the beaming together of separate notes in vocal music. I have, however, been careful to avoid anything that would make a difference in performance.
5. Full-sized notes are to be taken literally. Small notes serve to sketch in the harmony, or, in one or two examples, to set off melodic figures that rise above the Melody proper.
6. Most octave doublings have been omitted.
7. So have some of the more otiose marks of expression.
8. In marks of expression, etc., square brackets indicate editorial additions,