1. For two overviews of the Arab-Israeli conflict, see Elie Kedourie, “The Arab-Israeli Conflict,” in Arabic Political Memoirs (London, 1974), pp. 218–31; Shimon Shamir, “The Arab-Israeli Conflict,” in The Middle East: Oil, Conflict and Hope, ed. A. L. Udovitch (Lexington, Mass., 1976), pp. 195–231. For more detailed accounts, see Nadav Safran, Israel—The Embattled Ally (Cambridge, Mass., 1981); Don Peretz, Palestinian Refugees and the Middle East (Washington, D.C., 1993); Fred Khourie, The Arab-Israeli Dilemma (New York, 1968).
2. On the Madrid process, see James A. Baker, The Politics of Diplomacy (New York, 1995), pp. 417–20, 425–28, 447–49, 454–57, 459–63, 468–69, 487–89, 500–507; Eithan Ben Tzur, Haderekh Lashalom Overet be Madrid (The road to peace goes through Madrid) (Tel Aviv, 1997).
3. For an original, classic account of the Cold War in the Middle East, see John Campbell, Defense of the Middle East (New York, 1960). For a subsequent complete study of U.S. policy in the Middle East and relations with Israel, see Steven Spiegel, The Other Arab-Israeli Conflict (Chicago, 1985).
4. See William Quandt, A Decade of Decisions (Berkeley, Calif., 1997).
5. See Benny Morris, 1948 and After (Oxford, 1994) and Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict (New York, 1999); Avi Shlaim, The Politics of Partition: King Abdallah, The Zionists and Palestine 1951–1971 (Oxford, 1990) and The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World since 1948 (New York, 1999); Ilan Pappe, The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict 1947–1951 (New York, 1988); Efraim Karsh, Fabricating History: The New Historians (London, 1997); Shabtai Teveth, “Charging Israel with Original Sin,” Commentary