This bibliography lists the books I have found the most useful during the decade that I have worked on the subject of crime and punishment in America. It is not intended to be comprehensive. In addition to the books listed here, I referenced numerous articles—in academic journals, newspapers, and magazines—during the course of my research. For the sake of brevity, I have chosen not to list the great majority of these articles in the bibliography. Where an article is listed, it is because the article entered the literature and became a critical part of the broader policy debate.
Abramsky, Sasha. Conned: How Millions Went to Prison, Lost the Vote, and Helped Send George W. Bush to the White House. New York and London: New Press, 2006.
___. Hard Time Blues: How Politics Built a Prison Nation. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, St. Martin's, 2002.
Abramsky, Sasha, and Jamie Fellner. Ill-Equipped: U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness. New York, Washington, London, Brussels: Human Rights Watch, 2003.
American Friends Service Committee. Struggle for Justice: A Report on Crime and Punishment in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 1971.
Applebaum, Anne. Gulag: A History. New York: Doubleday, 2003.
Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. 1963. New York: Penguin, 1994.
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harvest, 1973.
Arpaio, Joe. Am erica's Toughest Sheriff: How We Can Win the War against Crime. Arlington, Tex.: Summit, 1996.
Barton, David. Benjamin Rush: Signer of the Declaration of Independence. Aledo, Tex.: Wallbuilder, 1999.
Baum, Dan. Smoke and Mirrors: The War on Drugs and the Politics of Failure. Boston: Little, Brown, 1996.
Beaumont, Gustave de, and Alexis de Tocqueville. On the Penitentiary System in the United States and Its Application in France. 1833. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1964.
Beccaria, Cesare. On Crimes and Punishment. Tr anslated by David Young. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1986.
Beecher, Edward. History of Opinions on the Scriptural Doctrine of Retribution. New York: D. Appleton, 1878.
Bellesiles, Michael, ed. Lethal Imagination: Violence and Brutality in American History. New York: New York University Press, 1999.
Bender, John. Imagining the Penitentiary: Fiction and the Architecture of Mind in EigtheenthCentury England. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Bennett, William. The Book of Virtues: A Treasury of Great Moral Stories. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
___. The De-Valuing of America: The Fight for Our Culture and Our Children. New York: Summit, 1992.