Effects of Exposure to Violent
There are hundreds of articles and chapters in edited volumes on violent television and film effects, and dozens on the topic of violent video game effects. Among the earliest video game studies was a correlational study of time spent playing arcade video games and self-reported aggression and delinquency by Dominick (1984). There have been numerous narrative reviews of the media violence effects studies (for television and film, e.g., Bushman & Huesmann, 2001; Comstock, 1980; Geen & Thomas, 1986; Huesmann & Miller, 1994; Huesmann, Moise, & Podolski, 1997; Smith & Donnerstein, 1998; Strasburger & Wilson, 2003; for video games, e.g., Dill & Dill, 1998). Similarly, there have been a number of meta-analytic reviews of this research (for television and film, e.g., Comstock & Scharrer, 2003; Hearold, 1986; Paik & Comstock, 1994; Wood, Wong, & Cachere, 1991; for video games, e.g., Anderson, 2004; Anderson & Bushman, 2001; Sherry, 2001). Every major review has found significant effects of media violence on aggression. Before summarizing the results of prior research in more detail, it is important to consider a few definitional and methodological issues.
Scholars and others writing about human aggression and violence sometimes use the same term to describe conceptually different ideas. For example, “aggression” has sometimes referred to measures as varied as