Risk Factor Illustrations
Although all three studies found results consistent with theoretical predictions, the percentage of variance in aggressive behaviors uniquely explained by video game violence exposure was in the small to moderate range. As we have argued here and elsewhere (Anderson et al., 2003; Gentile & Sesma, 2003), from a developmental perspective it is useful to consider media violence within a developmental risks and resilience approach and to understand media violence as only one of the multiple risk factors that can cause increases in the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior. In this section, we use the results of our three new studies to examine how various risk factors combine to predict increases in aggressive behaviors.
The main purpose of Study 1 was to examine experimentally the effects of brief exposure to either a violent or a nonviolent video game on a standard laboratory measure of aggression. However, Study 1 also included measures of violent behavior, adult involvement in media habits, and habitual exposure to violent video games. This allows a rudimentary examination of these risk factors. The correlational and regression analyses (reported in an earlier section) on the violent behavior measure revealed significant main effects of video game violence exposure and adult involvement in media habits, as well as an exposure by involvement interaction. To fur-