|•||The area: biological psychology views the way we behave in terms of our biology, that is, how our body works.|
|•||The research: does the size of our brains relate to how clever we are?|
Biological psychology is concerned with how biological processes (e.g. the workings of the brain) relate to our mental functions and behaviour (e.g. sleep, memory, emotion). It considers the physical basis of our thoughts, feelings and behaviours. It takes into account how the nervous system works (which includes the brain), how hormones affect our behaviour, the effect of our genes and so on.
The subject area of biological psychology has been of interest for a long time! For instance, the ancient Greek physician and philosopher Galen, suggested that personality and temperament were related to body fluids (e.g. blood, bile). Descartes (1596–1650) made the distinction between the human mind and human body, arguing that the mind is completely separate from the body. From the late 1600s, it has been understood that the brain is the biological base of psychological phenomena. However, at that time it was hard to understand how the brain worked and the various functions of the different areas of the brain. Our understanding of the relationship between our biology and our psychology has increased as our knowledge of how the body works has advanced. Milestones in our understanding include, for example, Broca's discovery (1861) of one of the brain areas responsible for speech in humans and Fritsch and Hitzig's (1870) detection of the brain's motor regions, found by electrically stimulating the cortex. More recently, advancing methods for