1. F. M. Dostoevskii, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii v tridtzati tomakh [The complete works in thirty volumes] (Leningrad, 1972–90), 8:340. Cited hereafter in the text as PSS followed by volume number, (book number), and page number(s). Unless otherwise indicated, all translations in this book are my own. For the reader's convenience, however, page numbers to available English translations of Dostoevsky's works, fully cited in the bibliography, appear after those for PSS.
2. Cited in Joseph Frank, Mantle of the Prophet, 497. On the nineteenth-century development of the idea of civil society (obshchestvo), and its relations to the autocratic state on the one hand and the common people (narod) on the other, see Nicholas V. Riasanovsky, A Parting of the Ways, and W. Bruce Lincoln, The Great Reforms.
3. The journalist I. F. Vasilevsky is quoted in Marcus C. Levitt, Russian Literary Politics, 9–10. For a brief history of the Russian intelligentsia's response to government censorship from the nineteenth-century reforms through the prerevolutionary period in the early twentieth century, see Aileen M. Kelly, “The Intelligentsia and Self-Censorship,” in idem, Toward Another Shore, 133–54.
4. Cited in Levitt, Russian Literary Politics, 2.
5. Alexander's assassination was the fourth such attempt; the first occurred in 1866. For an account of the political climate surrounding the 1880 celebration, see Levitt, Russian Literary Politics, chap. 3, which, in addition to describing events directly related to the Pushkin festival, gives a brief account of the growth of a nascent public sphere in Russia between 1860 and 1880.
6. On Alexander II's reforms, see Lincoln, The Great Reforms; Terence Emmons, “The Peasant and the Emancipation”; and Daniel Field, “The Year of Jubilee.” For an excellent account of the symbolic dimension of the emancipation, see Irina Paperno, “The Liberation of the Serfs as a Cultural Symbol.” For translations of documents relevant to the emancipation and associated peasant uprisings, see Daniel Field, Rebels in the Name of the Tsar.
7. The classic history of nineteenth-century Russian radicalism is Franco Venturi, Roots of Revolution. See also Isaiah Berlin, “Russia and 1848,” in his Russian Thinkers, 1–21.
8. Dostoevsky's early political radicalism and its consequences are discussed in part 1 of this volume (sections 1–5). On the development of a noble and then non-noble intelligentsia, see Berlin, “The Birth of the Russia Intelligentsia,” in idem, Russian Thinkers, 114–35; Kelly, “Carnival of the Intellectuals: 1855,” in idem, Toward Another Shore, 37–54; and Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter, Social Iden tity in Imperial Russia, esp. chap. 3, which places the growth of the non-noble intelligentsia, or raznochintsy, in the context of a developing Russian middle class.