Glossary of selected names and terms, identified in relation to their use in this text. Readers will find further identifications in the Abbreviations, Endnotes, and Chronology.
Abdication Crisis — King Edward VIII assumed the English throne upon the death of George V (1865–1936), in January 1936. In November 1936 he sought to marry an American divorcee, Wallis Simpson. The Cabinet upheld the Church of England's prohibition against the remarriage of those divorced; the “crisis” inhered in this decision, prompting the king to renounce the throne in December. His brother George VI (1895–1952) replaced him. Edward married Mrs. Simpson, and as Duke and Duchess of Windsor, they visited Hitler at Munich in March 1937.
Abyssinia — The Italian army under the fascist leader Benito Mussolini (1883–1945), invaded the northern African Christian kingdom of Abyssinia ("Ethiopia") in October 1935, seizing the capital Addis Ababa in May 1936 and forcing Emperor Haile Selassie (1892–1975) from his throne and into exile; Selassie resided in Bath, England, from 1936 to 1941.
Antislavery — Following upon agitation including the formation of the Committee for Abolishing the Slave Trade, founded in London in 1787, the British Parliament banned the slave trade in its colonies and on British ships in 1807. William Wilberforce (1759–1833), parliamentarian and evangelical Christian (1759–1833), and others, fought for the abolition of slavery itself in the British colonies; the Abolition of Slavery Act of 1833 was passed three days before his death. It is his centenary, coinciding with the Act's passage, that was celebrated in 1933. The 1823 Anti-Slavery Society was succeeded by the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1839. Its merger with the Aborigines Protection Society resulted in the organization in which Lady Kathleen Manning Simon, John Harris, and others served as leaders in the 1930s.
Anti-War Congress, Amsterdam — A gathering supporting a struggle for world peace, attended by three thousand organizations representing twenty-seven countries, including groups like the Fellowship of Reconciliation, the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILF), and pacifist organizations that had large followings in the aftermath of the Great War, as well as supporters of anti-imperialism and anticolonialism. Saklatvala, Münzenberg, and Ada Wright were in attendance.
Reginald Bridgeman (1884–1968) — A former diplomat with an aristocratic family background, Bridgeman became a fellow traveler of the communist left and a member of the LAI. His short diplomatic career in Europe and Teheran, including visits to India and Iraq, led him to pursue Middle East questions as a radical. He was also active in Chinese issues from the 1920s. As secretary of the LAI during the Meerut campaign years (1929–1933), he helped to host Ada Wright in London and chaired the Fleet Street press conference when she was photographed with Bob Lovell. Bridgeman ran unsuccessfully for Parliament as a left-wing independent; his LAI affiliation caused the Labour party to drop him as a candidate and he was expelled from the Labour party in 1940.