TREATY RELATING TO THE USE OF SUBMARINES
AND NOXIOUS GASES IN WARFARE
Signed at Washington, 6 February 1922
INTRODUCTORY NOTE: The Washington Conference of 1922 on the Limitation of Armaments, in which five of the victorious Powers of World War I took part, adopted the present Treaty, which, due to the failure of France to ratify it, did not enter into force (see also note introducing No. 12)
ENTRY INTO IN FORCE: Not in force.
AUTHENTIC TEXTS: French, English. The text below is reprinted from Conference on the Limitation of Armaments, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1922.
TEXT PUBLISHED IN: Conference on the Limitation of Armaments, 12 November 1921–6 February 1922; Conference sur la limitation des Armements, 12 novembre 1921–6 février 1922, Washington, Government Printing Office 1922, pp. 1605–1611 (Engl., French); Hudson, Vol. II, pp. 794–796 (Engl., French); Deltenre, pp. 454–459 (Engl., French, German, Dutch); Fontes Historiae Juris Gentium, Vol. VOJ2, pp. 1196–1199 (Engl., French, German); GBTS, 1924, No. 5, Cmd. 2036 (Engl.); AJIL, Vol. 16, 1922, Suppl., pp. 57–60 (Engl.); Malloy, Vol. III, pp. 3116–3119 (Engl.); Friedman, pp. 450–453 (Engl.); Ronzitti, pp. 343–346 (Engl.); Droit des conflits armés, pp. 1195–1197 (French); Genet, pp. 627–629 (French); Korovin, pp. 196–198 (Russ.); Ceppi, pp. 400–402 (Span. extract); ICRC website: www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf (Engl., French).
The United States of America, The British Empire, France, Italy and Japan, hereinafter referred to as the Signatory Powers, desiring to make more effective the rules adopted by civilized nations for the protection of the lives of neutrals and noncombatants at sea in time of war, and to prevent the use in war of noxious gases and chemicals, have determined to conclude a treaty to this effect, and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:
[Here follow the names of plenipotentiaries]
Who, having communicated their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed as follows:
Article 1. The Signatory Powers declare that among the rules adopted by civilized nations for the protection of the lives of neutrals and noncombatants at sea in time of war, the following are to be deemed an established part of international law:
(1) A merchant vessel must be ordered to submit to visit and search to determine its character before it can be seized.