1. Inglehart and Baker, “Modernization, Cultural Change and the Persistence of Traditional Values” Pew Research Center, “Among Wealthy Nations U.S. Stands Alone.” See also evidence presented in chapter 4.
2. Examples of many of these indicators of religious commitment, along with national data, are given in Gallup and Lindsay, Surveying the Religious Landscape.
3. Data about welfare recipients is available from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services at www.acf.dhhs.gov/acf_policy_planning.html#stats.
4. Two recent collections that provide helpful overviews of cultural sociology for those not acquainted with this field are Spillman, Cultural Sociology, and Cerulo, Culture in Mind. Besides my essays in these volumes, my approach to sociology of culture is also presented in my edited volume Vocabularies of Public Life and in Wuthnow, Hunter, Bergesen, and Kurzweil, Cultural Analysis.
5. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, chapter 1; Day, A New History of Social Welfare, chapters 1–2, 3; Axinn and Stern, Social Welfare, chapter 1. On patron-client relations, see Schmidt, Guasti, Lande, and Scott, Friends, Followers, and Factions; and on moral economy, James C. Scott, The Moral Economy of the Peasant.
6. Parsons, Talcott Parsons on Institutions and Social Evolution. For a critical examination of the modernization thesis, see the essays in Bruce, Religion and Modernization.
7. Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers.
8. Orloff, The Politics of Pensions.
9. The most widely cited source of these arguments was Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion.
10. See also Clydesdale, “Toward Understanding the Role of Bible Beliefs and Higher Education in American Attitudes toward Eradicating Poverty.”
11. Axinn and Stern, Social Welfare, chapter 9.