# Portfolio Risk Analysis

By Gregory Connor; Lisa Goldberg et al. | Go to book overview

2
Unstructured Covariance Matrices

This chapter considers the estimation and use of return covariance matrices without any factor structure imposed upon them. Following this, in chapters 3–6, we consider structured covariance matrices.

Section 2.1 discusses the estimation of return covariance matrices using classical statistical methods. Section 2.2 describes the errormaximization problem in portfolio management and its implications for risk modeling. Section 2.3 treats portfolio risk management as a problem in decision making under uncertainty, and considers the Bayesian approach to covariance matrix estimation.

2.1 Estimating Return Covariance Matrices

This chapter is concerned with the estimation of the n × n covariance matrix of returns or excess returns. Since, by definition, the riskless rate has no variance, there is theoretically no difference between the total and excess return covariance matrices:

Although the riskless rate is known one period ahead, there is variation in its value over time, so that time-series-based estimates of cov(ri, rj) and cov(xi, xj) can differ. In most circumstances it is best practice to use excess returns in the estimation of C. The resulting estimate can be thought of as measuring the covariance matrix of total returns, conditional upon knowing the riskless return.

For notational simplicity, we will not differentiate between the return frequency of the data set and the risk horizon used for risk analysis. In practice, the return frequency used in estimation can differ from the return frequency used in risk analysis. So, for example, the analyst may use a daily return frequency to measure the covariance matrix even though the analyst mostly cares about portfolio risk at the monthly return frequency. Or the analyst may use monthly returns to analyze risk

-36-

If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes

#### Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

#### Cited page

Portfolio Risk Analysis

• Title Page iii
• Contents vii
• Acknowledgments xi
• Introduction xiii
• Key Notation xix
• 1: Measures of Risk and Return 1
• 2: Unstructured Covariance Matrices 36
• 3: Industry and Country Risk 61
• 4: Statistical Factor Analysis 79
• 5: The Macroeconomy and Portfolio Risk 101
• 6: Security Characteristics and Pervasive Risk Factors 117
• 7: Measuring and Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk 134
• 8: Integrated Risk Models 155
• 9: Dynamic Volatilities and Correlations 167
• 10: Portfolio Return Distributions 191
• 11: Credit Risk 212
• 12: Transaction Costs and Liquidity Risk 241
• 13: Alternative Asset Classes 271
• 14: Performance Measurement 299
• 15: Conclusion 319
• References 323
• Index 345
Settings

#### Settings

Typeface
Text size Reset View mode
Search within

Look up

#### Look up a word

• Dictionary
• Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
• Bookmarks
• Highlights & Notes
• Citations
/ 354

### How to highlight and cite specific passages

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

## Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

## Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.