The Political Economy of Japan's Low Fertility

By Frances McCall Rosenbluth | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 7
The Political Economy of Daycare
Centers in Japan

JUNICHIRO WADA


Introduction

Working mothers regularly vent frustrations about the inadequacies of childcare services in letters to the editor in Japanese newspapers. The issues surrounding this subject go well beyond questions of female professional advancement. For these women, the crux of the problem seems to lie in the fact that public childcare in Japan is inflexible and in short supply. In particular, disgruntled Japanese mothers cite the limited supply of daycare centers (hoikuen) for children under three years old. Furthermore, waiting lists are long, and selection processes are often mystifying. These women tell of consulting newspapers for tips on procuring a spot. Even when they “get in,” unyielding childcare policies can fail to meet the unique needs of these women and their youngsters, including extendable care (encho hoiku) and care for ill children (hyoji hoiku). Women are often forced to augment public daycare with after-care in the private sector for these services.

Japan's low fertility rate may well be due in part to childcare woes. As Figure 7.1 indicates, Japan's total fertility rate in 1966 was already low, at 1.58. Many attribute the unusually low birthrate to the fact that 1966 was the year of Hino-e Uma (fiery horse). According to superstition, girls born in that year were liable to kill their husbands, so many mothers are thought to have refrained from childbirth in 1966.

But fertility rates continued to drop even further. In 1989 the Japanese total fertility rate fell to 1.57, constituting what was termed the “1.57 shock.” Since then, we see slow but steady improvements in Japanese childcare policy. The national government created the so-called “Angel

-155-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Political Economy of Japan's Low Fertility
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 224

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.