THIS BOOK RESULTS FROM the labor of many people in addition to myself. Thousands of long-ago volunteers committed their own thoughts and those of their colleagues to paper. Those thoughts constitute this book's empirical basis. A host of my own friends, relations, colleagues, librarians, and archivists also ensured that, in the end, I wrote the book I wanted to write. Among this project's financial supporters are the University of North Texas's Office of the Vice Provost for Research, which awarded me two Junior Faculty Summer Research Fellowships and two Faculty Research Grants; my family; and a Sesquicentennial Research Grant awarded by the State Historical Society of Iowa and the Iowa Department of Cultural Affairs. For much-needed space and library privileges, I would like to thank Sara Austin at the Newberry Library and the departmental associate program at Northwestern University's Department of History.
Allowing me access to their holdings and hefting innumerable dusty volumes in the process are the staffs at the Newberry Library, the New York Public Library's Local History and Genealogy Room, the Boston Public Library, and Northwestern University's Periodicals and Newspapers Room. I also thank the archivists and staffs at the American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming; the Atlanta History Center Library/Archives; the Georgia Department of Archives and History in Atlanta; Howard University's Moorland-Spingarn Research Center; the Library of Congress's Manuscript Division; the Litchfield Historical Society in Litchfield, Connecticut; the Minnesota Historical Society in the Minnesota History Center, St. Paul; the Mississippi Department of Archives and History in Jackson; the National