1. Virgil T. Blossom, It Has Happened Here (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959), p. 4.
2. Interview with Wesley Pruden by John Luter, December 28, 1970, Columbia University Oral History Project [hereafter cited as CUOHP], OH-264, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas [hereafter cited as DDEL].
3. Daisy Bates, The Long Shadow of Little Rock: A Memoir (New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1962), p. 73.
4. Bates, The Long Shadow of Little Rock, pp. 65–71; Grif Stockley, Daisy Bates: Civil Rights Crusader from Arkansas (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2005), p. 123.
5. Arkansas Gazette, September 5, 8, 1957; New York Times, September 5, 1957; Time, September 16, 1957; FBI, Interviews with Carlotta Walls, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Minnie Jean [sic] Brown, Gloria Ray, Jefferson Thomas, Terrence Roberts, and Thelma Mothershed, September 4, 1957, FBI, Box 1, UALR Archives and Special Collections, UALR Library, University of Arkansas at Little Rock [hereafter cited as UALR]; Bates, The Long Shadow of Little Rock, pp. 64–76; Ben Fine, Audiotape, Daisy Bates Papers [hereafter cited as Bates Papers], University of Arkansas–Fayetteville [hereafter cited as UAF]. In a statement that she refused to sign, Melba Pattillo told the FBI that she did not attempt to go to school on September 4 because she feared for her safety. In her narrative of her year at Central, however, she describes arriving on the periphery of the crowd with her mother, witnessing the treatment of Eckford, and then barely escaping from a small group of whites who ran after her and her mother, brandishing a rope. FBI Interview, Melba Joyce Pattillo, September 5, 1957, FBI, Box 1, UALR; Melba Pattillo Beals, Warriors Don't Cry: A Searing Memoir of the Battle to Integrate Little Rock's Central High (New York: Pocket Books, 1994), pp. 46–51.
6. Arkansas Gazette, September 11, 1957; Mary L. Dudziak, Cold War and Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton