1. On the origins and meanings of “homintern,” see chapter 1.
2. On the Lavender Scare in politics and in Washington, D.C., see David K. Johnson, The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government (Chicago, 2004), the essential book on this subject.
3. “The Homosexual in America,” Time, 21 January 1966, 40–41.
4. Composers Recordings, Inc. CD 721 (1996).
5. I draw primarily on Conversation No. 498–5, 13 May 1971, in the Nixon Watergate Tape series, as held by the Nixon Presidential Materials Staff and transcribed for me by David Johnson. Additional comments by Nixon, including those on San Francisco and fashion, I take from “Nixon on Tape Expounds on Welfare and Homosexuality,” ChicagoTribune, 7 November 1999, by James Warren, a journalist zealous in finding and explaining material from the Nixon tapes. Warren's article first alerted me to this conversation. See also Gene Weingarten, “Richard Nixon: Just What Was He Smoking?” Washington Post, 21 March 2002.
6. Nadine Hubbs, The Queer Composition of America's Sound: Gay Modernists, American Music, and National Identity (Berkeley, 2004), 4.
7. Vito Russo, The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies, rev. ed. (New York, 1987), 326.
8. Edmund White, States of Desire: Travels in Gay America (New York, 1981), 238.
9. W. J. Rorabaugh, Kennedy and the Promise of the Sixties (New York, 2002), 142.
10. David Caute, The Dancer Defects: The Struggle for Cultural Supremacy during the Cold War (New York, 2003) ; Devon W. Carbado, Dwight A. McBride, and Donald Weise, eds., Black Like Us: A Century of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual African American Fiction (San Francisco, 2002), 27.
11. Anthony Tommasini, Virgil Thomson: Composer on the Aisle (New York, 1999) ; James Campbell, Talking at the Gates: A Life of James Baldwin (Berkeley, 2002) ; Fred Kaplan, Gore Vidal: A Biography (New York, 2000). On Barber, see Barbara Heyman, Samuel Barber: The Composer and His Music (New York, 1992), essential to my work despite the limitation noted here. On Copland, see Howard Pollack, Aaron Copland: The Life and Work of an Uncommon Man (New York, 1999).
12. Tommasini, Thomson; Hubbs, Queer Composition; George Chauncey, Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World,