1. See Judith DeCew's In Pursuit of Privacy: Law, Ethics, and the Rise of Technology(1997) for one such admirable attempt.
2. Theorists who have taken this path include Ruth Gavison (1980), Tom Gerety (1997), Charles Fried (1968), and William Parent (1983).
3. See for example works by Cynthia Dwork et al. (Dwork 2006; Dwork et al. 2006) and Rebecca Wright (Wright 2008; Wright, Yang, and Zhong 2005).
4. For the full text, see European Parliament and Council of the European Union (1995), specifically chapter 1, article 2, at http://www.cdt.org/privacy/eudirective/EU_ Directive_.html#HD_NM_28.
1. The choice of these terms was influenced by Lester (2001, 28), in turn influenced by privacy activist Richard M. Smith.
1. By public venue, I mean publicly accessible, not necessarily publicly owned. This includes shopping malls and many retail spaces, but rules out military bases, the White House, and so forth.
2. Although facial recognition systems are not yet sufficiently advanced to reliably pick out “ the face in the crowd,” improved video-recording technologies ultimately