with Political Intent
MICHAEL A. NEBLO
Aristotle's approach to anger pointed the way to a modern, folk-centered, cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. Indeed, Aristotle could be called the first cognitive theorist of the emotions, and his analysis makes implicit use of the ideas of relationship, appraisal, and action tendency.
RICHARD LAZARUS, Emotion and Adaptation
Let us therefore take it that the soul has its principal seat in the small gland located in the middle of the brain. From there it radiates through the rest of the body by means of the animal spirits, the nerves, and even the blood, which can take on the impressions of the spirits and carry them through the arteries to all the limbs.
DESCARTES, The Passions of the Soul
Descartes famously speculated that the nexus of the human mind and body centered on the pineal gland. Because our passions formed a crucial link between mind and body, they operated via the soul's influence on and receptivity to the “animal spirits” circulating through the pineal. Of course, we now know that Descartes was wrong in his conjectures about the pineal and the animal spirits. Moreover, few still think that his robust metaphysical dualism provides a satisfactory solution to the mind-body problem. As contemporary scientists, we are apt to look at Descartes's theory of the emotions with a kind of knowing smile of condescension.
I thank Ann Crigler, Michael MacKuen, George Marcus, Eileen McMahon, Russell
Neuman, an anonymous reviewer, and especially John Parrish for helpful comments on