THIS BOOK IS the product of close to seven years of work. Scores of people have contributed to this project, and many assisted in the research that supports our findings. Through their efforts, they helped shape our own thinking. We are grateful for the terrific colleagues and students who have made their mark on this book.
We are indebted to Brian Gaines for allowing us to build upon and use his data set on Canadian constituency elections. He has been very forthcoming at various stages of this project. Financial support from the National Science Foundation and our home universities made this research possible. We would like to acknowledge the support of the following institutions or centers at the University of Michigan: Center for Political Studies, Department of Political Science, International Institute, Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, Office of Vice President for Research, and the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. At the University of California, Berkeley support received from the endowment of the Indo-American Community Chair was critical in the final stages of the project.
We received outstanding research assistance from talented and hardworking graduate students, including Won-ho Park, Junghwa Lee, David Backer, Richard Agin, Jae-Jae Spoon, Dulcey Simpkins, Kris Miler, Sarah Nicolet, Sang-Jung Han, Ben Bowyer, and Caroline Arnold. Several diligent undergraduates helped us as well, including Marian Dixon and Jamie Armitage.
Our greatest intellectual debt is to those who have commented on previous papers we have written on the subject, the research project as a whole, or on the book manuscript. We particularly thank Terri Bimes, O. N. Chhibber, Paul Gargaro, Ken Greene, Simon Hug, Orit Kedar, Hanes Walton, and two anonymous referees for reading the entire manuscript and offering helpful suggestions. A large number of scholars also provided insightful critiques on parts of the research. In particular, the suggestions and comments of Richard Johnston, William Carty, Donald Blake, Fred Cutler, Scott Mainwaring, Roy Pierce, Elisabeth Gerber, Scott Page, Jenna Bednar, Gary Cox, Tim Feddersen, Chuck Myers, Brian Gaines, Gary Jacobson, Arend Lijphart, John Aldrich, David Samuels, Burt Monroe, Nancy Burns, Don Kinder, Karen Long, Rob Franzese, Rob Mickey, Rob van Houweling, Allen Hicken, Andre Blais, Jay Dow, Mike McDonald, Jacqueline Stevens, Rein Taagepera, Mariano Torcal, Chris Achen, Ben Page, Ted Brader, Jake Bowers, Cara