1. Gougeon, Virtue's Hero: Emerson, Antislavery, and Reform (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990), 4. Some of the details in the following paragraph I have gathered from Gougeon's book and I will have more to say about its importance in chapter 2.
2. The Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, centenary edition, vol. 2, ed. E. W. Emerson (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1903–4), 9–10. Hereafter cited as CW with volume and page number.
3. John Dewey, The Middle Works, 1899–1924, ed. Jo Ann Boydston, 15 vols. (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984), 11:43. Hereafter cited as MW with volume and page number.
4. The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. William H. Gilman and others, 16 vols. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1960–82), 11:351. Hereafter cited as JMN with volume and page number.
5. Emerson's proposed remedy for the Church was, interestingly, the same as his remedy for the government: “the church should always be new and extemporized” (CW 11:478).
6. In form, this strategy recalls the one that Kenneth Burke makes note of in Hitler's Mein Kampf: Of “Hitlerism,” Burke notes, “irrational it is, but it is carried on under the slogan of 'Reason' … the rationalized family tree for this hate situates it in 'Aryan love.'” See Kenneth Burke, The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), 199.