In the decade it has taken me to research and write this book, I have accrued many debts to individuals and institutions. The National Endowment for the Humanities provided me a year-long fellowship to inaugurate the research phase of the project in 1990–91. The School of Liberal Arts at Indiana University—Purdue University—Indianapolis (IUPUI) awarded me several grants-in-aid-of-research to complete the Civil War hospital workers data entry project, which has compiled the most complete statistical survey of paid female relief workers to date. I thank Patricia Hoard of Washington, D.C., for entering data from the thousands of musty nineteenth-century file cards; Bill Stuckey of IUPUI for troubleshooting the computer management of the data; Bill Stuckey and Dana Qualls for producing the quantitative figures summarizing the data; and Joy Kramer for word processing wizardry. My students in Civil War literature at IUPUI, especially Diana Dial Reynolds, helped augment the bibliographic base of this book.
An army of archivists and librarians have aided me in my work. At IUPUI University Library, Marie Wright, Jim Baldwin, and Mary Beth Minick answered detailed reference questions, no matter how obscure the sources, and I received hours of help from Interlibrary Loan. Nancy Eckerman of the Indiana University School of Medicine Library was tireless in tracking down information about nineteenth-century medical history. For the courtesy, patience, and guidance of archivists from Louisiana to Maine, I am also immensely grateful. Cumulatively I logged nearly two years of research at twenty-four sites. Michael Musick and Michael Meyer at the National Archives allowed me to pore over thousands of brittle documents and correspondence from the Union and Confederate Surgeon Generals' Offices and to scurry through the stacks with them in search of registers, letterbooks, and other dusty tomes. Special thanks to Ed Bridges, Rickie Brunner, Norwood Kerr, and Ken Tilley at the Alabama Department of Archives and His