Books, 1956); David Riesman, The Lonely Crowd: A Study of the Changing American Character (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1950).
9. John Keats, The Crack in the Picture Window (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1957); Richard Gordon et al., The Split-Level Trap (New York: Random House, 1961
10. Herbert Gans, The Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community (New York: Vintage Books, 1967). The quote is taken from a new preface to a later edition (New York: Columbia Univeristy Press, 1982), xviii.
11. Gans's comments were part of a “Symposium on the State of the Nation's Cities,” Urban Affairs Quarterly 18, no. 2 (December 1982): 177.
12. Thomas L. Blair, International Urban Crisis (New York: Hill & Wang, 1974); Jean R. Lowe, Cities in a Race with Time (New York: Random House, 1967); Jeffrey Hadden, Louis Masotti, and Kevin Larson, Metropolis in Crisis (Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock, 1967); and Charles O. James and Layre D. Hoppe, Urban Crisis in America: The Remarkable Ribicoff Hearings (Washington, DC: National Press, 1969).
13. On the environmental movement, see the major study by Samuel P. Hays, Beauty Health and Permanence: Environmental Politics in the United States, 1955–1985 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987). For the relation of this movement to suburbanization, see Adam Rome The Bulldozer in the Landscape (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). A very good analysis of the history of key strains of environmental thought as well as their limitations can be found in Charles Rubin, The Green Crusade (New York: Free Press, 1994); and Hal K. Rothman, Saving the Planet (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2000).
14. On attempts to control pollution, see Martin Melosi, Pollution and Reform in American Cities, 1870–1930 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980); and Joel Tarr, The Search for the Ultimate Sink: Urban Pollution in Historical Perspective (Akron, OH: University of Akron Press, 1996).
15. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962); Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle: Nature, Man and Technology (New York: Knopf, 1971); and Robert Rienow and Leona Train Rienow, Moment in the Sun: A Dial Report on the Deteriorating Quality of the American Environment (New York: Dial Press, 1967).
16. On the suburban support for the environmental movement, see the fascinating testimony in Rome, The Bulldozer in the Landscape.
17. On the Nixon administration and environmental legislation, see Russell E. Train, “The Environmental Record of the Nixon Administration,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 26 (Winter 1996): 185– 95; and, from a very different perspective, John Brooks Flippen, “Containing the Urban Sprawl: The Nixon Administration's Land Use Policy,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 26 (Winter 1996): 197–207.
18. Paul Ehrlich, The Population Bomb (New York: Ballantine Books, 1968), 69–80.
19. There had been many earlier examples of this kind of thinking—see, for example, Fairfield Osborn, Our Plundered Planet (Boston: Little, Brown, 1948); William Vogt, Road to Survival (New York: W. Sloane Assoc., 1948)—but it was in the late 1960s that they took hold of the popular imagination.
20. The most conspicuous critic of Ehrlich was Julian Simon. His The Resourceful Earth (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984), was a massive assault on the entire philosophical as well as quantitative edifice of the limits to growth enterprise. A more recent book that explores the weaknesses of limits to growth is Greg Easterbrook, A Moment on the Earth (New York: Viking, 1995), a book that,