1 Alexander Pope, 'Proposed Epitaph for Isaac Newton'. Quoted by Prigogine and Stengers 1984: 27.
2 It remains to be seen to what extent the change in world view was an autonomous 'mental' transformation. Much is to be said for the idea that it reflected more general changes in culture and society at large. From the seventeenth century onward, the urban elites in Europe increasingly found themselves living in conditions that were different from those of their parents and ancestors. This created a sense of perpetuating social and cultural change. When, in the nineteenth century, the process of industrialization gained momentum, this only added to the overwhelming experience of contemporary witnesses that they were living in a protean age.
1 This section is based on Margulis and Sagan 1997: 99-114 and Westbroek 1991: 170-2 and 183-203.
2 For an account of research into early human development with references to recent findings and ideas see McBrearty and Brooks 2000.
3 CE stands for Contemporary Era, BCE for Before Contemporary Era. These notations are equivalent to the traditional Christian notations of AD (Anno Domini) and BC (Before Christ) which are used in some chapters of this book.
4 This section is largely based on MacDougall 1996 and Roberts 1998.
5 This and the following paragraphs are based on Goudsblom 1996: 31-62.
6 The term functions is used here along the lines of Elias 1978 and Goudsblom 1977.
1 There has also been a great deal of 'environmental change' for other species and for less dominant offspring of the species Homo sapiens, as touched upon in Chapter 2. We will probably never hear their story as they would have told it.
2 For research and discussions see Bradley 1995; Lamb 1988, 1995; Jones 1996; Roberts 1989; Prentice 1998; Houghton 2001; Dunbar 2000.
3 The Nilometer is a stone gauge at Roda near Cairo where the level of the Nile is recorded. Superimposed on the annual high flows that follow rains in the East and Central African highlands are sustained periods of high or low flows that correlate with wet or dry periods, respectively.
4 The Quaternary is the period of geological time that forms the last 2 million years. It is character-