34
LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951) was born in Vienna into a wealthy, highly cultured family. His father was a Jew who had converted to Protestantism, his mother a Roman Catholic, in which religion Wittgenstein was brought up. Wittgenstein went to study engineering at the University of Manchester. Having read the work of Bertrand Russell, in 1912 he transferred to Cambridge University, where Russell was teaching, to study under him. Russell soon realized that his student was a genius and also an extremely eccentric and intense young man. Russell relates the following story about his pupil.

At the end of his first term at Cambridge he came to me and said, “Will you please tell me whether
I am a complete idiot or not?” I replied, “My dear fellow, I don't know. Why are you asking me?”
He said, “Because, if I am a complete idiot, I shall become an aeronaut; but if not, I shall become
a philosopher.” I told him to write something during the vacation on some philosophical subject
and I would then tell him whether he was a complete idiot or not. At the beginning of the fol-
lowing term he brought me the fulfillment of this suggestion. After reading only one sentence, I
said to him, “No, you must not become an aeronaut.”1

Wittgenstein returned to Austria to serve in the Austrian army during the First World War. He was captured by the Italians and spent time in a prisoner-of-war camp, where he finished writing his first work, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1919). The work was to show the logical relationship between language and the world, to show what could and could not be said. He writes in the preface:

The book deals with the problems of philosophy, and shows, I believe, that the reason why these
problems are posed is that the logic of our language is misunderstood. The whole sense of the
book might be summed up in the following words: what can be said at all can be said clearly, and
what we cannot talk about we must pass over in silence.

A selection from this work is reprinted below.

After the war, he worked as a schoolmaster and gardener in a monastery before returning to Cambridge in 1929. There he submitted the Tractatus as his PhD dissertation. Russell and G. E. Moore were his examiners. He was appointed a lecturer at Cambridge and continued in that capacity until his death in 1951. His second book, Philosophical Investigations, was published posthumously in 1953.

Wittgenstein came to reject the reasoning of the Tractatus, believing his solution of giving logical structure to language solved the problem of how language related to the world. In this second work, Wittgenstein denies his earlier views that words have essences and that propositions have pictorial form which reflects the world. Instead he claimed that languages were various games that occurred within different cultures or forms of life. Philos

1 Bertrand Russell, Portraits from Memory (George Allen & Unwin, 1956), 26–27.

-1150-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Classics of Philosophy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Time Line xi
  • Part One - The Ancient Period 1
  • 1: The Pre-Socratics 3
  • 2: Plato 20
  • 3: Aristotle 240
  • 4: Epicurus 357
  • 5: Epictetus 363
  • 6: Sextus Empiricus 374
  • 7: Plotinus 391
  • Part Two - The Medieval Period 405
  • 8: Augustine 407
  • 9: Boethius 447
  • 10: Avicenna 455
  • 11: Anselm and Gaunilo 458
  • 12: Thomas Aquinas 462
  • 13: William of Ockham 486
  • Part Three - The Modern Period 493
  • 14: René Descartes 495
  • 15: Thomas Hobbes 525
  • 16: Blaise Pascal 566
  • 17: Baruch Spinoza 570
  • 18: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 618
  • 19: John Locke 652
  • 20: George Berkeley 690
  • 21: William Paley 723
  • 22: David Hume 726
  • 23: Immanuel Kant 819
  • 24: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 914
  • 25: Søren Kierkegaard 922
  • 26: Mary Wollstonecraft 935
  • 27: John Stuart Mill 942
  • 28: Friedrich Nietzsche 1030
  • Part Four - The Contemporary Period 1059
  • 29: W. K. Clifford 1061
  • 30: Charles Sanders Peirce 1066
  • 31: William James 1076
  • 32: Bertrand Russell 1100
  • 33: G. E. Moore 1142
  • 34: Ludwig Wittgenstein 1150
  • 35: Edmund Husserl 1168
  • 36: Martin Heidegger 1185
  • 37: Jean-Paul Sartre 1207
  • 38: A. J. Ayer 1225
  • 39: Thomas Nagel 1234
  • 40: Philippa Foot 1242
  • 41: Nelson Goodman 1249
  • 42: John Rawls 1254
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 1272

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.