R. JONAH IBN JANĀḤ
R. Jonah ibn Janāḥ did not compile any work devoted uniquely to comparative philology but many comparisons are embedded in his treatises on grammar and lexicology. (Concerning the comparisons in the “minor” works, see below, 13.15.)1Kitāb al-Lumaʿ (= Sefer HaRiqmah), apart from having been written in the context work of the Arab grammarians' theory (as shown by Becker 1998, see above, 1.2.1), comprises, in the main, grammatical comparisons (which are outside the scope of the present study),2 whereas Kitāb al-ʾUṣūl (= Sefer HaShorashim) is replete with lexical comparisons. The latter are clear proof that Ibn Janāḥ's practice of language comparison was a methodical system. Various scholars have discussed certain parts and/or sectors of this comparison system.
Bacher (1884, 1885) issued synopses on Ibn Janāḥ's comparisons with Aramaic and rabbinic Hebrew, as well as on his comparisons with Arabic. But these surveys did not handle the issue thoroughly and did not even approach being a complete coverage of the materials. The quality of the printed editions and/or transcriptions of MSS on which Bacher based his publications was less than satisfactory (above, 0.1). Furthermore, ever since the publication of Ibn Barùn's Kitàb al-Muwàzana, there have been always some scholars who viewed Ibn Janāḥ's methodology, as mirrored by Ibn Barūn's doctrines.
In the present study, an attempt has been made to arrive at a new evaluation of the comparison methods of Ibn Janāḥ, based on the entire range of his lexical comparisons as encountered in his several works. The better printed editions have been used as source texts but whenever necessary, the MSS themselves of the four works— i.e. ʾUṣḥūl, Shorashim, Kitāb al-Mustalḥaq and Sefer HaHassagah were resorted to. The present study aims to present the lexical comparisons
1 On Ibn Janāḥ's comparisons in general, see Maman (2000a), pp. 271–75.
2 With regard to Ibn Janāḥ, comparative grammar has now been comprehen-
sively treated in Becker 1998.