1. I say 'in the West' because I am mainly going to be talking about Western culture. but these ideas are not confined to the West. There is an old tradition in Indian aesthetics, for example, of associating works of literature and music with particular emotions.
1. The judgments in my examples are crude. Gabriele Taylor, Pride, Shame, and Guilt: Emotions of Self-Assessment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985) has far more subtle analyses. For the views of non-philosophers about how these concepts should be used, see June Price Tangney and Kurt W. Fischer, Self-Conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment, and Pride (New York: Guilford, 1995).
2. See Cheshire Calhoun and Robert C. Solomon, What Is an Emotion?: Classic Readings in Philosphical Psychology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984). For Aristotle's views on emotion see especially the Rhetoric. The passage I quote is from the Rhetoric, as glossed by W. W. Fortenbaugh, Aristotle on Emotion (London: Duckworth, 1975), 12. Descartes's theory is to be found in Rene Descartes, 'The Passions of the Soul', in The Philosophical Writings of Descartes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), Spinoza's in Baruch Spinoza, Ethics (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1992), and Hume's in David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge (London: Clarendon, 1967). Relevant passages are excerpted in Calhoun and Solomon, What Is an Emotion?.
3. In fairness to Gordon, he implicitly acknowledges that beliefs and wishes are not sufficient for emotion by saying that beliefs and wishes together with some other unspecified conditions are sufficient for emotion. Philosophers will recognize in Gordon's account the influence of Donald Davidson's theory of action. See especially Donald Davidson, 'Actions, Reasons, and Causes', in Essays on Actions and Events (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980).
4. Taylor, Pride, Shame, and Guilt, 41.
5. Robert C. Solomon, The Passions, 1st edn. (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/ Doubleday, 1976), 187.
6. Robert C. Solomon, 'Emotions and Choice', in Amélie Rorty (ed.), Explaining Emotions(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980); Solomon, The Passions.