Supporting Tables for
Figure 4.1 in chapter 4 is based on an ordinary least squares regression model to see how spending levels vary by fiscal dependence. Per-pupil spending is the dependent variable, and we have a dummy variable coded 1 for fiscally dependent districts and 0 for independents ones. There is no variation in dependence within many states, so we cannot estimate this as a hierarchical model. Instead, we add dummy variables for each state to account for the variety of factors that may influence the levels of spending and levels of key independent variables across the states. The slope estimates, standard errors, t-ratios and significance of each variable, along with model fit and sample size, are reported in table A4.1 (the estimates for the forty-two state dummy variables are not reported).
We also control in this model for public opinion, as well as median income and the share of all education spending in the district that comes from local
Table A4.1. Dependent School Districts Spend More Than Independent Districts