1. Michael Barnett and Raymond Duvall, “Power in International Politics,” International Organization59 (Winter 2005): 43.
2. Ibid., p. 44.
3. David Scott and Charles Hirschkind, “Introduction: The Anthropological Skepticism of Talal Asad,” in Scott and Hirschkind (Eds.), Powers of the Secular Modern: Talal Asad and His Interlocutors (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006), p. 3.
4. Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, 2nd ed. (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1997), p. 61.
5. Anthony W. Marx, Faith in Nation: Exclusionary Origins of Nationalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 198.
6. Talal Asad, “Responses,” in Scott and Hirschkind, Powers of the Secular Modern, p. 217.
7. Ole Wæver, “Insecurity, Security and Asecurity in the West European Non-war Community,” in Emanuel Adler and Michael Barnett (Eds.), Security Communities (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 118, n. 89.
8. Eric Ringmar, “Alexander Wendt: A Social Scientist Struggling with History,” in Iver B. Neumann and Ole Wæver (Eds.), The Future of International Relations: Masters in the Making?(London: Routledge, 1997), p. 285.
9. Stephen Saideman, “Thinking Theoretically about Identity and Foreign Policy,” in Shibley Telhami and Michael Barnett (Eds.), Identity and Foreign Policy in the Middle East (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002), p. 177; Marc Lynch, State Interests and Public Spheres: The International Politics of Jordan's Identity(New York: Columbia University Press, 1999); Michael Barnett, Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order(New York: Columbia University Press, 1998).
10. Rodney Bruce Hall, National Collective Identity: Social Constructs and International Systems(New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), p. 4. Payne argues similarly that, “since World War II, the importance of domestic cultural factors in the shaping of a country's external behavior has been downplayed by scholars.” Richard J. Payne, The Clash with Distant Cultures: Values, Interests and Force in American Foreign Policy(Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995), p. 3.
11. Interesting attempts to negotiate this divide in history and political science include Lynch, State Interests and Public Spheres; Azzedine Layachi, The United States and North Africa: A Cognitive Approach to Foreign Policy (New York: Praeger, 1990); Matthew Frye Jacobson, Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876–1917(New York: Hill & Wang, 2001); Anders Stephanson, Manifest Destiny: American Expansion and the Empire of Right, 5th ed. (New York: Hill & Wang, 2000); Naoko Shibusawa, America's Geisha Ally: Reimagining the Japanese Enemy(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006); and Petra