Latin America's agriculture has been one of the economic sectors most negatively affected by the neoliberal reform set off in the 1980s. In most countries, a broad program of agricultural liberalization was launched under pressure from the United States and suprastate organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Economic liberalization generally included the unilateral lifting of protectionist policies, the opening of agricultural markets by lowering or eliminating tariffs and quotas, the privatization and/or dismantling of government corporations for rural credit, infrastructure, commercialization, and technical assistance, the end or even reversal of land reform policies, and the radicalization or reorientation of food policies focused on the internal market toward an export-based agricultural economy. These extensive reforms had profound, often negative, consequences for the agricultural sectors of Latin American countries and for a high proportion of agricultural producers. Impacts have been compounded by the fact that reforms in Latin America were not accompanied by a corresponding liberalization of agricultural trade and production in advanced capitalist countries, which continue to heavily subsidize and protect their farm sectors with billions of dollars, thus placing Latin American producers at a competitive disadvantage. “Neoliberal globalism” is what we call the ideology driving this set of reforms, both to describe their content and to highlight the fact that such policies can be changed with a different outlook.
The biotechnology revolution of the 1990s, which has inundated the countryside of some countries and supermarkets around the world with transgenic crops and other new products, was superimposed on the reforms brought about under the impetus of neoliberal globalism. From their beginnings at the laboratory stage in the 1980s, agricultural