AMAA American Missionary Association Archives, Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta, Ga.
Bryant MSS John Emory Bryant Papers, Manuscript Collection, Perkins Library, Duke University, Durham, N.C.
Hunter MSS Charles Hunter Papers, Special Collections, Duke University, Durham, N.C.
Langston MSS John Mercer Langston Scrapbooks, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, Washington, D.C.
Mixon MSS Henry Winfield Mixon Papers, Manuscript Collection, Perkins Library, Duke University, Durham, N.C.
Ruffin MSS Frank G. Ruffin Scrapbooks and Papers, Archives and Manuscripts, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Va.
1. Rawick, ed., American Slave, supp., series 2, vol. l, Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, and Other Narratives, 320–21.
2. Laura Simmes to the Christian Recorder, 30 January 1864.
3. Elsa Barkley Brown has underscored the significance of public ceremonies such as Emancipation Day celebrations for the black community in postEmancipation Richmond, Virginia. See Brown, “Negotiating and Transforming the Public Sphere,” and Brown and Kimball, “Mapping the Terrain of Black Richmond.” Important studies of southern black political culture that incorporate some elements of public ceremony include Julie Saville, Work of Reconstruction, and Hahn, Nation Under Our Feet.
4. Several studies explore the composition of the black political and social leadership in the post-Emancipation South. Particularly useful is Eric Foner, Freedom's Lawmakers. See also relevant essays in Litwack and Meier, eds., Black Leaders; Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, ch. 9; Williamson, After Slavery; Holt, Black over White; and Drago, Black Politicians.
5. Greenwood, Bittersweet Legacy; Meier, Negro Thought.
6. Painter, Exodusters; Angell, Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, ch. 6.
7. On the position of individuals who serve as intermediaries between subordinate and dominate groups in society, see Bourdieu, Language and Symbolic Power,