1. The quotations are appropriately referenced later.
2. Among the large body of scholarship on the history and practice of confessions, the following works are especially relevant: Brooks's Troubling Confessions: Speaking Guilt in Law and Literature (2000) examines the use of confessions in modern legal procedures against a rich historical and literary background; Tambling's Confession: Sexuality, Sin, the Subject (1990) emphasizes the emergence of the subject and discourses of sexuality as a result of a confessional culture; Tentler's Sin and Confession on the Eve of the Reformation (1977) offers an excellent historical study of religious confession from the early penitential practices to the highly developed practice of auricular confession prior to the sixteenth century; Foster's Confession and Complicity in Narrative(1987) traces the “confessional turn” in select literature and its implications for the reader; Senior's In the Grip of Minos: Confessional Discourse in Dante, Corneille and Racine (1994) takes a literary perspective on confessions and pays particular attention to the architectural manifestation of the confessional in the wake of the sixteenth-century Catholic Counter-Reformation; Coles's Self/Power/ Other (1992) discusses the confessing self from the perspective of political philosophy and examines the implications of Augustine's interior soul searching and Foucault's critique of the soul as a discourse that imprisons the body. Foucault's History of Sexuality (1990) must be credited for raising the interest in confessional discourse with respect to the emergence of the self, to coercion, sexuality, and power.
3. See Bourdieu's theory of the masculine “habitus” in Masculine Domination (2001; first published in French, La Domination masculine, 1998).
4. The scholarly discussion on masculinity within the field of men's studies has correctly pointed to differences between, on the one hand, the multiple social practices of men of different backgrounds (sexual, ethnic, national, class, etc.) and, on the other, the legitimization of a dominant and normative masculine ideal that upholds the patriarchal order. The latter has been appropriately described as “hegemonic masculinity,” a concept convincingly introduced by Connell (1995); see also Brod (1987); Brod and Kaufman (1994); West and Lay (2000); Gardiner (2002); Adams and Savran (2002). The term “heteronormativity” has been introduced by