Sport, Revolution and the Beijing Olympics

By Grant Jarvie; Dong-Jhy Hwang et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 3
Sport, Physical Culture, Nationalism
and the Chinese Republic

Introduction

A further phase of development of sport and physical culture in China lasted from about 1911 until about 1949, and three important processes may be highlighted. First, the continuing influence of imperialist and patriarchal power exercised through the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) and the missionary school system. Western agents were requested to respect the sovereign rights of education (which included physical education and sport) in China during a period of anti-imperialism between 1919 and 1927. Second, the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang or KMT) launched a critical debate on both indigenous and Western forms of sport and physical culture between 1915 and 1937. Mao Zedong's article 'A Study of Physical Education' (New Youth, 1 April 1917: 66–8) informed some of the thinking about sport and physical culture during this period. Third, the defeat of the Chinese nationalists in 1949 resulted in the KMT fleeing to Taiwan. The emergence of 'Two Chinas' will be covered later in this text but several questions will be addressed in this chapter in relation to how sport developed before 1949, under early Communist control.


The Rise and Fall of the YMCA

The YMCA continued to exercise a relative degree of control over the development of physical activity and sport. From 1908 to 1911, Exner's influence proved to be the incipient beginning of a constructive programme of physical education and culture in China. Four secretaries arrived in China between 1911 and 1913 to continue this work, namely J. H. Crocker, A. H. Swan, C. A. Siler and C. H. McCloy. Crocker took over the position of national director while Swan continued to develop training programmes under the umbrella of the Shanghai YMCA. In 1912 two steps were taken to broaden the appeal of the programme. First, boxing was introduced as a core sport. It was thought that men might be willing to attend boxing classes and subsequently develop an

-31-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Sport, Revolution and the Beijing Olympics
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 166

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.