1. C. Adams, D. Bartelt, D. Elesh, I. Goldstein, N. Kleniewski, and W. Yancey, Philadelphia: Neighborhoods, Division, and Conflict in a Postindustrial City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.
2. C. Harris and E. L. Ullman, “The Nature of Cities,” The Annals 242 (1945): 7–17.
3. M. Orfield, Metropolitics: A Regional Agenda for Community and Stability. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution and Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1997; also M. Orfield, American Metropolitics: The New Suburban Reality. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2002.
4. D. Rusk, Cities Without Suburbs, 2nd edition. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1995; also D. Rusk, Inside Game, Outside Game: Winning Strategies for Saving Urban America. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.
5. B. Katz, “Reviving Cities: Think Metropolitan,” Policy Brief No. 33. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1998.
6. D. Hayden, Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820–2000. New York: Pantheon Books, 2003; R. Lewis, ed., Manufacturing Suburbs. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004.
7. G. Frug, City Making: Building Communities without Building Walls. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999, p. 7.
8. S. B. Warner, The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods of Its Growth. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1968, p. 4.
10. N. Peirce, Citistates: How Urban America Can Prosper in a Competitive World. Washington, D.C.: Seven Locks Press, 1993.
11. Orfield, Metropolitics, p. 9.