The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Vol. 4

By Geoffrey W. Bromiley; Everett E. Harrison et al. | Go to book overview

s
SABACHTHANI.See ELI, ELI, LAMA SABACHTHANI.SABANNUS sә-ban'әs (RSV mg., NEB, 1 Esd. 8:63). See BINNUI1.SABAOTH sab'ә-oth, sab'ā-oth. See GOD, NAMES OF II.C; HOST OF HEAVEN.SABAT sa'bat.1. (1 Esd. 5:34, AV). See SHAPHAT 6.2. (1 Mace. 16:14, AV). See SHEBAT; CALENDAR II.A.2.SABATEAS sab-ә-tē'әs (1 Esd. 9:48, AV). See SHABBETHAI.SABATHUS sab'ә-thәs (1 Esd. 9:28, NEB). See ZABAD 5.SABATUS sab'ә-tәs (1 Esd. 9:28, AV). See ZABAD 5.SABBAIAS sә-bā'әs "Gk. Apoc. Sabbaias"; AV SABBEUS; NEB SABBAEAS. A layman who married a foreign woman (1 Esd. 9:32); called “Shemaiah” in Ezr. 10:31.SABBAN sab'әn (1 Esd. 8:63, AV). See BINNUI 1.SABBATAEAS sab-ә-tā'әs (1 Esd. 9:48, NEB). See SHABBETHAI.SABBATAEUS sab-ә-tā'әs (1 Esd. 9:14, NEB). See SHABBETHAI.SABBATH "Heb. šabbāt̠" (Ex. 16:23; 20:8; Lev. 16:31; 23:3; Dt. 5:12; 2 K. 11:5; Neh. 13:5; Ps. 92:1 "MT2";Isa. 1:13; 56:2; Jer. 17:21; Ezk. 20:12; 46:1; Am. 8:5; etc.); "šāb̠at̠" (“keep sabbath,” Lev. 23:32; 2 Ch. 36:21); "Gk. sábbaton, (tá) sábbata) (Mt. 12:lf., 5; Mk. 2:23f., 27f.; Lk. 4:16; 6:1, 5; Jn. 5:9f.; Acts 1:12; etc.); "prosábbaton" (“day before the sabbath,” Mk. 15:42); "sabbalismós" (“sabbath rest,” He. 4:9); AV REST. The seventh day of the week (Ex. 16:26; 20:10; etc.), as well as certain feast days (Lev. 16:31; 23:32; etc.), marked in ancient Israel, Judaism, and early Christianity by cessation of work and ceremonial observance.
I. Etymology and Meaning of the Term
II. Origin
A. Lunar
B. Taboo Day
C. Socioeconomic
D. Calendrical
E. Conclusion
III. Sabbath in the OT
A. Use of the Term
B. History and Development
1. Premonarchial Period
2. Early Monarchy
3. Late Monarchy
4. Exile and Postexilic Era
IV. In Judaism
A. Jubilees and the Zadokite Document
B. Pharisees and the Rabbinic Tradition
V. In the NT
A. Jesus in the Gospels
B. Paul and the Church: From Sabbath to Lord's Day
C. Eschatological Sabbath

I. Etymology and Meaning of the Term.–The derivation and exact meaning of Heb. šabbāt̠ are uncertain. Among the numerous proposals, the most likely are the following. (1) The noun šabbāt̠ may be derived from Akk. šabattu, which also referred to a specific day (see II.A below). Despite the remarkable similarity between the two words, they do differ. Akk. šabattu doubles the final radical, while Heb. šabbāt̠ doubles the middle radical. This difference is difficult to explain etymologically; but it is at least possible that the two words are related, perhaps sharing a common ancestor. (2) Since “sabbath” refers most often to the seventh day of the week, and since the Hebrew word for seven is šeb̠a‛, there have been frequent attempts to derive šabbāt̠ from šeb̠‛. The difficulty lies in explaining how the final consonants came to differ. Such a shift is unlikely, and it is probably coincidental that the two words begin with the same two consonants. (3) The most likely possibility is that šabbāt̠ is derived from the Hebrew verb šāb̠at̠, “cease,” since the most ancient characteristic of seventh-day observance is that all work ceased. Thus sabbath would mean something like “cessation day,” the day on which all work stops. If in fact the noun was derived from the verb, it appears that the noun then influenced the verb as well. In a few instances šāb̠aṭ has become a denominative, losing its basic sense of “cease” and acquiring the sense of “keep sabbath” (Lev. 23:32; 2 Ch. 36:21).

The noun šabbāt̠ôn also apparently arose from the influence of šabbāt̠. The RSV renders all eleven occur-

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The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Vol. 4
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contributors† v
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Q 1
  • R 27
  • S 247
  • T 695
  • U 937
  • V 963
  • W 1001
  • X 1161
  • Y 1162
  • Z 1167
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