The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Vol. 4

By Geoffrey W. Bromiley; Everett E. Harrison et al. | Go to book overview

y

YAHWEH. SeeGOD, NAMES OF II.C.

YARMUK yärrmək. The chief river of Transjordan. It is not mentioned in any Jewish writings until Mishnaic times. The first literary appearance of the name is in Pliny Nat. Hist. (1st cent. A.D.). Its lack of mention in the OT may be explained by Israel's early loss of control over the plateau of BASHAN. Hence the Yarmuk did not serve as a frontier for Israel, even though in times of strength Israel's territory reached the river or even beyond (cf. mention of Ashtaroth in 1 Ch. 6:71 "MT 56").

The Yarmuk's tributaries drain virtually the whole of Bashan and Hauran. Like the Jabbok, Arnon, and Zered rivers the Yarmuk has cut a deep gorge through the Transjordanian plateau (seePALESTINE IV.A.7). Where the Yarmuk joins the Jordan about 6.5 km. (4 mi.) S of the Sea of Galilee, they are both about 9 m. (30 ft.) wide although the Yarmuk is deeper. The two main towns of the Yarmuk basin were Ashtaroth and Edrei (cf. Dt. 1:4 "LXX, Vulg., RSV, NEB"; Josh. 12:4). H. L. ELLISON

YA'UDI

"Assyr. ya-ú-du, ya-ii-di, ya-u-di; Zenjirli inscription y dy", YA'UDIANS "Assyr. ya-ú-da-a-a (read yaudaya)". A place mentioned in the inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III and Sargon II of Assyria, and those of Panammu and Barrakib from Zenjirli, and the people of that place. In 2 K. 14:28 the NEB reads JAUDI rather than Judah.

The gorge of the Yarmuk River through the Transjordan plateau
(W. Braun)

I. Language.–The inscriptions from Zenjirli are written in a language or dialect that has been classified as Phoenician (J. Friedrich, Phönizisch-Punische Grammatik "1951", pp. 2f., 153-162) and as Old Aramaic (G. A. Cooke, Text-Book of North-Semitic Inscriptions "1903", pp. 159-185, and many scholars since; F. M. Cross, and D. N. Freedman, Early History Orthography "1952", p. 29, describe it as the standard Aramaic of the day). Some elements in the language are closer to Phoenician than to Aramaic, and other elements are clearly Aramaic, as both Friedrich (p. 153) and Cooke (p. 185) recognized. It probably should be described as a local dialect (the term is used by both Friedrich and Cooke), neither Phoenician or Aramaic but closely related to both.

II. Location.–Zenjirli, also known as Samal (Assyr. samallu(ARAB, II, § 197", is located in the KaraSu, a valley N of Antioch-on-the-Orontes and E of the mountains that separate Karatepe from Zenjirli. Certain kings are known:

-1162-

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The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Vol. 4
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contributors† v
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Q 1
  • R 27
  • S 247
  • T 695
  • U 937
  • V 963
  • W 1001
  • X 1161
  • Y 1162
  • Z 1167
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