The Fall of a Sparrow: The Life and Times of Abba Kovner

By Dina Porat; Elizabeth Yuval | Go to book overview

Five The Manifesto of January 1, 1942
“The rebellion began with the manifesto”
September 1941–January 1942

By the morning of September 7, 1941, the Jewish population of Vilna had been confined into two cramped ghettos. The larger one was called the First Ghetto and housed 30,000 people, and the smaller one was called the Second Ghetto, holding 10,000. They were horribly overcrowded, and because there was no communication between the two, relatives lost contact. On the same day, Franz Murer appointed a Jewish council for the First Ghetto. It could not be considered a continuation of the former council, which had represented Vilna Jewry with personal and public stature. Murer's council appointed Jacob Gens, who had been a captain in the Lithuanian army, as chief of police, and Salk Dessler as his chief assistant.1

The broad political and ideological spectrum that had characterized Jewish Vilna was no longer represented, and most members of the newly appointed council belonged to the Bund, the Yiddish-speaking leftist workers' party, whereas most of those in the police department belonged to Beitar, the right-wing revisionist youth movement. The council was again known as the Judenrat, a German name given by the occupiers, not by the Jews, thus signifying that it did not represent them. Previously, wrote Kovner, when the first Judenrat's members had been chosen by the Jews, “they were public servants.” Later, when they were chosen by the Germans and hoped that by working for them, they could save Jews from being killed, “they were the servants of an illusion.” Finally, when everyone available had already been chosen for membership and the ghetto was about to be liquidated, the Judenrat members “were the servants of destruction.” Nissan Reznik, one of the Hano'ar Hazioni leaders in the ghetto, simply said, “We no longer had Wygodzki to turn to. We had no leaders.”2

-57-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Fall of a Sparrow: The Life and Times of Abba Kovner
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 411

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.