Central Paradox of the Global Era?
The central narrative of the 1990s was the resurgence of nationalism with all its unwelcome and unpredictable consequences. In today's post-9/11 world, the focus has shifted on religious fundamentalism and global terrorism as manifestations of dogmatic particularism. This does not, however, mean that nationalism is no longer seen as a problem or a force to be reckoned with. It simply became subsumed under a more general heading of identity politics. It is now common to argue that identity politics is at the core of the predominant majority of post-Cold War conflicts evidenced by the arguably dramatic proliferation of intrastate violence alongside with the decline in interstate hostilities. Nationalism, therefore, falls into the category of those forces that are challenging the stability of the post-Cold War international system and mounting backlash against ideational, normative and material influences of globalization. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a detailed exposition of the above narrative on the basis of existing literature.
The chapter begins by defining Globalization and Nationalism as central concepts used throughout the book. It then moves on to the discussion of main arguments describing the relationship between globalization and contemporary nationalism that would amount to and constitute the globalization hypothesis. In doing so, this chapter addresses the following main questions: What are the causal mechanisms involved in generating nationalist responses to globalization and what do they tell us about the nature of nationalism in the era of globalization?