Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis

By Giovanni Sartori | Go to book overview

chapter
two
the party as whole

1. NO-PARTY VERSUS ONE-PARTY

Thus far party has meant parties – party indicated a plural. Single-party states materialised only after World War I, and until then the expression 'one-party system' appeared a contradiction in terms. It made no more sense than to say 'limbless quadruped'. To be sure, one can take a quadruped and cut off its legs. But can we expect it to walk? Is it still a quadruped? According to the rationale of party pluralism, if a party is not a part, it is a pseudo-party; and if the whole is identified with just one party, it is a pseudo-whole. We are thus peremptorily confronted with the sui generis nature of the one party. So-called one-party systems exist. But do they have anything in common with the pluralistic party systems? That is, in common with the systems in which the parties are 'parts' and the whole is the output of an interplay between more than one part?

To be sure, single parties differ widely, as we shall see. For the moment, however, we are dealing with the concept of the single party. This is also to say that the notion of unipartism is taken in its strict sense, with reference to the founders, i.e., to the first wave of singleparty states of the 1920–1940 period: the Soviet, Nazi and Fascist types of unipartism.1 Even so, the assertion that the single party identifies with the whole needs to be qualified, for it is obvious enough that the single party is smaller than the whole – in fact, it is often an elite party with restricted membership, a vanguard party that foreruns the whole. Yet the single party is not a 'part' in any of the senses in which parties in the plural are such. Aside from the dimensional adjustment, the single party displays the characteristics of wholism, or of wholeness, in that it flatly rejects the idea of a whole resulting from a competitive interplay of parts. Even within the single party any kind of formalised intra-party division is banned: It is heresy, intolerable deviance. Thus communism, nazism, and (with lesser intensity) fascism testify to the existence, or resurgence, of a monochromatic belief system based on the principle of unanimity and the horror of dissent.2

On the other hand, and conversely, even though a whole is always larger than a part, whenever it is represented by only one party, it no longer can be an impartial whole, a whole above its parts. While a pluralistic whole is many sided, a

-35-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 344

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.