Constricting and Extinguishing
The many massive restrictions in all areas starting in 1933 dramatically changed life as German Jews had known it. In addition, some new experiences became part of everyday life. The frequency and lasting nature of the problems made some new experiences into everyday occurrences. These included antisemitic violence, ranging from attacks against individuals to the November Pogrom and subsequent imprisonment in concentration camps; the unrelenting question whether, in view of the dwindling prospects for survival in Germany, to leave the country or eke out an existence there in spite of the circumstances; and finally, once the war started, becoming a prisoner in Germany, with forced labor, deportations to the extermination camps starting in 1941, and, for only a very few, a precarious chance to survive underground.
Immediately after the Nazis assumed power, their supporters took revenge on numerous opponents of the regime. In March, the SA beat a Jewish baker's apprentice in Berlin to death because he had filed a police report after Nazis had attacked him a year earlier. At least 15 other Jews were murdered in the same year in the SA barracks, "unofficial" concentration camps, and the like.1 Some Jewish lawyers who had defended socialists or members of Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold, the Weimar Coalition security force, were physically assaulted and murdered or driven to suicide.
Nor did the violence remain limited to political adversaries. Early on, the manager of the United Breslau Theaters was kidnapped and abused by men in SA uniforms; a Jewish moneylender in lower Bavaria was abducted from his