Economic Development: Past and Present

By Richard T. Gill | Go to book overview
Abramowitz Moses, "Resource and Output Trends in the United States Since 1870", 73, 73n,74
Africa: comparison with Latin America, 90; contrasts in living, 86, 86n; per-capita output, 82, (table)83; population, 80, 86- 88; transport, 29, 30
African Economic Development, William A. Hance, Council on Foreign Relations, 30n,
Agriculture: balance with industry, 91, 93, 94, 95, 98; and land scarcity, 24; relationship to development and industry, 22, 26; and the Soviet Union, 55, 56, 94, 115; state-controlled, 55, 56, 94, 115; U.S. percentages, 63
Aid (see also Foreign aid) : international, 88, 93; to underdeveloped countries, 115, 116; U.S. loans and grants, 88
America (see also United States, Canada, Latin America, South America), 58ff
American Economic History, S. E. Harris (ed), 116
Annual real investment, defined, 11
Argentina, decline and growth, 33
Arkwright, Richard,18, 47
Ashton T. S. The Industrial Revolution, 18th and 19th Centuries, 47, 47n,116
Asia: comparison with Latin America, 90; economic progress, 2; per capita output, 1957, (table)82, 98; population, 80, 86-89; population policy, 96, 97
Australia, exportation of grain to China, 114, 115
Authoritarianism: in China, 101; defined,71n,72n,
"Basic Facts on Productivity Change", Solomon Fabricant, 73n,73, 74
Bauer P. T., West African Trade, 86, 86n,
Birth rate: Malthus' and Ricardo's theories, 24; reasons for decline, 62n; reduction in Japan, 97; and relation to economic development, 7n; U.S., 61, 62, 67, 68, 77
Bohm-Bawerk, theories on timeconsuming methods of production, 13n,
Brazil (see also Latin America)
British Industry: 1700-1950, Walter G. Hoffman , 49(fig.),50
Business cycles (see also Depressions), 33, 34
Campbell Robert W., Soviet Economic Power, 55, 55n,
Canada, and exportation of grain to China, 114, 115
Capital: accumulation and owner. ship, 13n; availability of British investments, 52; of India, 104, of India, 104, 105; investment in underdeveloped countries, 87, 88, 98; methods of mobilization, 91, 91n,92, 93, 98; production, 12, 13; rate of formation, 91ff; relation to technology, 12; role in output, 12; "roundabout processes," 20; and State, 54; tangible goods, defined,10
Capital accumulation, 28; of Ancient Egypt, 29; capital per worker, 77; consumption vs. investment, 14; costs, 14; defined, 11; development of society, 31, 32; foreign investments, U.S., 69; future of, 75-78; Middle Ages in Europe, 29; poverty and "vicious circle," 29; rate, uses of, 13, 40; Soviet Union, 13; in underdeveloped countries, 29; U.S. private enterprise, 69, 70
Capital formation: inflation as mechanism, 92, 93, 98
Capital goods: as force of development, 4
Capital investment: intangible and tangible, 11, 91, 91n, Capitalism: misnomer for Western economics, 13n; study of, 48; Russian transition to communism, 23
Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Joseph A. Schumpeter, 73, 73n,74, 75
Carey, Henry Charles, 68
Cartwright power loom, 45n, China (see also Asia, Communism), 100ff; agriculture of, 103, 104, 107, 109, 109n,110- 116; area, 101; authoritarianism, 101, 106, 107; birth control, 112; collectivization of land, 103, 104; communes,104, 110, 112; consumer goods, 110-115; consumption levels, 114, 114n,115; contrast with India, 104, 105; cost of development, 114, 115; crop failures, 114; Distribution of Investment, First Five-Year Plan, 1953-1957, (table)109; economic backwardness, 103, 103n; economy, post-World War II, 101ff; foreign aid, 109, 115, 116; goals, overtaking Great Britain, 102; industry, 103, 103n, 106, 107, 109, 110, 115; industrialization, forced draft, 114, 115; investment, comparison with India, (table)106; investment rate, 106, 106n,107, 107n,109; lack of information, 113; level of total output, 113; Marriage Law, 1950, 104, national income, 1952-1959, 114, 114n,115; per capita output, 113; population, 101, 110-113; private enterprise, 103, 103n; propaganda, 104; reported failures, 114, 115; reserves, foreign exchange, 109, revolution, 100ff; and Russian aid, 106, 106n,107, 107n; self-sufficiency, 106, 106n, 107; standard of living, post World War II, 101; state control of industry, 103, 103n; "statistical blackout," 104ff; total output, 1950-1957, 114, 115(table) 106; Treaty of Nanking, 1842, 101; urbanization, 100ff, 114
China's Gross National Product and Social Accounts, W. W. Hollister , 106, 106n, (see also Malenbaum)
Choh-Ming Li, "China", Economic Development, 109, 109n,
Church and State: and the Middle Ages, 41; "Protestant ethic," 41
Clark Colin, Conditions of Economic Progress, 22, 22n,(table) 64
Class struggle (see Communism, Marx, Karl)
"Classical" theory of economics: 24-27
Collectivization: China, 103, 104
Colonialism, 88
Common Market, 2, 70
Communism (see also China, Soviet Union), 100ff; capital essential, 13n; Marx's theory, 23
Communist Manifesto, 1848, Karl Marx , 22, 23
Conditions of Economic Progress, Colin Clark, 22, 22n,(table) 64
Condliffe John B., "New Zealand", 12n,
Conservation, U.S., 9
Consumer: in developing economy, 32
Consumption, future, 75, 76; U.S., 70, 70n,71
Cotton imports, Great Britain, (table)49
Cotton textile industry: in England, 45, 45n,
Crompton, Samuel, 45n, Cultivation of world's lands, (table)8
Darwin, Charles, and influence of Malthus, 24n, Death rate: Asia decline, 7; and theories of Malthus and Ricardo, 24; theory of raising, 97n,
Denison Edward F., Sources of Economic Growth in the United States, 73, 73n,74
Depression, U.S., 33, 34, 60
Development of nations (see also Capital, Economic Growth, Economic devlopment, Communism, Education, Research): contribution of economics, 2
"Diminishing Returns," law, 25, (fig.)25n,26
Division of labor, and Adam Smith, 15, 16, 20
DuBridge Lee A., "Educational and Social Consequences", Automation and Technological Change, 72n,
Duesenberry James S., Income, Saving and the Theory of Consumer Behavior, 84, 84n,
Eckstein Alexander, The National Income of Communist China, 101, 101n,
Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe, Henri Pirenne, 116


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