the map of research in education
In my book Creating Education through Research (1995) I sketched out a map of research in education which set out to demonstrate that it is 'a broad church' and embraces a wide range of intentions and purposes. For the purposes of the present book it is important to recognize that only part of the territory of 'research in education' is 'educational research', and only part of 'educational research' is 'educational case study'. I believe this delineation is most important if misunderstandings and paradigmatic feuds are to be avoided.
It will be helpful to reiterate some of the points made in Creating Education through Research here. First, I shall consider the concepts of 'education', 'research', 'educational research' and 'discipline research in educational settings'. Second, I shall consider the concept of 'empirical research' in education and its three categories of 'theoretical research', 'evaluative research' and 'action research'. Third, I shall look briefly at the two major paradigms of constructing reality - using the terms 'positivist' and 'interpretive'. Fourth, comes a discussion of scientific generalization and statistical generalization, in the context of the study of samples and then, finally, fuzzy generalization is introduced in the context of study of singularities and case study as a sub-set of these.
It is important for every researcher to be clear about what she or he means by education. In public discussion the concept of 'education' seems to be strangely located within the positivist paradigm, as though we all give it the same meaning. Thus Tony Blair, Prime Minister, announced in 1997 that his policy was 'Education, education, education': do we all give the same meaning to each of these three words?1 Clearly not. For example, some see it as acquiring useful knowledge and skills in order to achieve a high quality of