IDENTIFYING WITH ONE'S SUPERIOR

PART I (SECTION 11)

Mozi said: In ancient times, when mankind was first born and before there were any laws or government, it may be said that every man's view of things was different. One man had one view, two men had two views, ten men had ten views—the more men, the more views. Moreover, each man believed that his own views were correct and disapproved of those of others, so that people spent their time condemning one another. Within the family fathers and sons, older and younger brothers grew to hate each other and the family split up, unable to live in harmony, while throughout the world people all resorted to water, fire, and poison in an effort to do each other injury. Those with strength to spare refused to help out others, those with surplus wealth would let it rot before they would share it, and those with beneficial doctrines to teach would keep them secret and refuse to impart them. The world was as chaotic as though it were inhabited by birds and beasts alone.

To anyone who examined the cause, it was obvious that this chaos came about because of the absence of rulers and leaders. Therefore the most worthy and able man in the world was

-35-

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Mozi: Basic Writings
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Outline of Early Chinese History vi
  • Introduction 1
  • Honoring the Worthy 19
  • Identifying with One's Superior 35
  • Universal Love 41
  • Against Offensive Warfare 53
  • Moderation in Expenditure 65
  • Moderation in Funerals 69
  • The Will of Heaven 81
  • Explaining Ghosts 97
  • Against Music 113
  • Against Fatalism 121
  • Against Confucians 129
  • Index 141
  • Other Works in the Columbia Asian Studies Series 147
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